| Home | E-Submission | Sitemap | Contact us |  
top_img
Asian J Beauty Cosmetol > Volume 16(4); 2018 > Article
인삼 화장품 연구현황

요약

본 연구는 국내외 학자들의 인삼 관련 연구 결과를 정리하고 시장 응용상황을 조사함으로써 인삼 화장품 연구의 현재 상황과 미래 발전 방향을 보다 잘 이해하고자 진행되었다. 인삼 화장품의 메커니즘 및 관련 기술을 요약 정리하기 위하여 최근 인삼 화장품에 관한 문헌을 체계적으로 수집하고 조사하였다. 인삼 화장품, 특히 ginsenosides와 ginseng 추출물에 대한 연구는 주로 중국과 한국에서의 미백 및 항노화 효과에 초점을 두고 연구를 진행하였다. 인삼의 노화 방지 효과에 관한 연구는 비교적 적절하지만 미백 메커니즘에 대한 연구는 앞으로 더 많이 연구되고 개선되어야 할 필요가 있다고 사료된다. ginsenoside 및 ginseng 추출물을 제외하고 인삼 관련 다른 활성 성분 및 중국 전통 의학의 처방에 대한 연구 및 응용은 거의 보고되지 않았다. 앞으로의 연구는 이 두 측면으로 확장될 필요가 있다고 사료된다.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to better understand the current situation of ginseng cosmetics research and the possible development direction in the future, through sorting out the relevant research results of domestic and foreign scholars and investigating the market application. To summarize the mechanism and related technologies of ginseng cosmetics, the pertinent literatures of ginseng cosmetics in recent years were collected systematically. The research on ginseng cosmetics, especially for ginsenosides and ginseng extracts, mainly focuses on the whitening and anti-aging effects, mostly in China and Korea. Additionally, the study on the anti-aging effect of ginseng is comparatively adequate, and that of the whitening mechanism needs to be further studied and improved. As mentioned above, except for ginsenosides and ginseng extracts, the research and application in vitro of other active ingredients and traditional Chinese medicine cosmetology prescription related to ginseng is less reported. Consequently, future study can be expanded from these two aspects.

中文摘要

通过整理国内外学者相关研究成果和调研市场运用现状,以更好的了解人参化妆品研究现状和未来可能的发展方向。收集整理近年来人参化妆品运用相关文献,总结人参化妆品的功效机理研究及相关技术。人参化妆品的研究多集中在中国和韩国,人参皂苷为主要研究成分,抗衰和美白功效的研究和运用较多,抗衰功效研究较为完善,美白机制的研究有待进一步深入。人参提取物和人参皂苷的活性研究和运用较多,其他活效成分的研究较少,人参相关的中医古籍组方的药理研究和运用还比较少见,未来的研究可从这两方面拓展。

Introduction

人参(Panax ginseng C. A. Mey)为五加科植物,其根具有近两千年的药用历史,在中国自古就有美容养颜的运用先例。最早记载于中国古籍《神农本草经》:“人参,味甘微寒,主补五脏,安精神,定魂魄,止惊悸,除邪气,明目,开心益智。久服,轻身延年”。历代医家均认为人参为补虚良药,具益气补血、生津补阳、安神益智、固脱活血、扶正祛邪的功效。中国经典美容医书《千金方》、《圣济总录》和《鲁府禁方》均对人参的美容方剂有所记载,人参更是清朝皇宫崇尚的养颜佳品,如《慈禧光绪医方选议》中记载的“五芝地仙金髓丹”。近年随着生活水平的提高和消费水平的升级,消费者对美丽的需求越来越旺盛,对天然植物类护肤品的认可度和青睐度不断攀升,国内外诸多化妆品企业把目光转向这有着“百草之王”美誉的植物,陆续推出了多种人参相关产品。结合市场现状,本文综述人参化妆品的功效、技术及市场运用等方面,以为人参化妆品的发展提供参考。

Effect of ginseng and ginsenosides and their mechanism of action

人参的花、叶、茎、果、根等部位含有多种活效成分,目前已经分离的人参活性成分包括皂苷类、多糖、挥发油、氨基酸及多肽类等,具有抗肿瘤、抗衰老、美白、调节神经系统和提供免疫等多种功效,以人参皂苷和人参提取物的抗衰和美白功效在化妆品研究和运用最多。

1. Anti-aging effect of ginseng and ginsenosides

1) Anti-aging mechanism

现代衰老学说认为,衰老与自由基及其所诱导的脂质过氧化对细胞和机体的损伤有关(Reiter et al., 2008)。人体内存在清除自由基的防御系统,包括超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(glutathione peroxidase,GSH-Px)、过氧化氢酶(catalase,CAT)等抗氧化酶系。正常情况机体内自由基的产生和清除处于动态平衡,但随着年龄的增长,机体清除自由基的能力减弱,使自由基在机体内大量积累,而过多的自由基可使生物膜上磷脂所含的不饱和脂肪酸氧化分解,产生过氧化脂质(lipid peroxide,LPO)及丙二醛(malondialdehyde,MDA)等代谢产物(Lin & Sun, 2018)。自由基攻击生物膜多不饱和脂肪酸、DNA、蛋白质和酶类等生物大分子,引发的氧化损伤是导致机体老化的主要因素。抗氧化从细胞水平大致分为清除自由基,提高抗氧化酶活性与减少脂质代谢产物,保护细胞重要的细胞器,调控细胞信号转导通路抑制细胞凋亡。
从皮肤具体细胞来说,和衰老相关的细胞是表皮层的基底细胞、真皮层的成纤细胞。基底细胞分裂产生角质形成细胞的活力不足时,表皮更新时间增长,皮肤表现出过度角质化的衰老体征;成纤细胞活力不足,胶原蛋白和透明质酸合成不足,导致真皮层储水能力下降,胶原蛋白减少,皮肤失去弹性,形成皱纹(Li & Wu, 2017)。细胞外基质(extracellular matrix,ECM),主要包括胶原蛋白、弹性蛋白、糖蛋白等,是支撑皮肤结构、维持皮肤功能的重要物质;可通过抑制胶原蛋白酶或弹性蛋白酶的酶活,甚至降低此类酶的表达,来减少其对细胞外间质的降解;基质金属蛋白酶(matrix metalloproteinases,MMPS),由角质生成细胞和成纤维细胞产生,也能够消化细胞外基质中各种蛋白组分(Xia et al., 2018)。因此,增加相关细胞活力、促进胶原合成、抑制胶原降解和MMPS的活性和表达也是抗衰老的途径之一。

2) Current status of research on anti-aging effect of ginseng cosmetics

目前涉及人参抗衰机制主要集中于清除自由基、降低活性氧(reactive oxygen species,ROS)水平、提高抗氧化酶活性、促进胶原合成和细胞增殖等方面,人参皂苷和人参提取物作为抗衰化妆品的主要选择,均可从多个方面共同发挥抗氧化抗衰功效。研究表明,人参三醇组皂苷可减少细胞S期细胞数、抑制细胞凋亡、激活细胞内超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性、降低细胞内H2O2,从而对UVB致人角质形成细胞损伤有一定的保护作用(Jin et al., 2002)。Rb1能显著增强紫外线辐射后细胞的活力,减少核浓缩、核小体的形成及细胞凋亡的发生,加速环丁烷嘧啶二聚体的清除,来抑制紫外线诱导的角质形成细胞凋亡的发生(Cai et al., 2008)。人参皂苷Rb1代谢产物CK可减少基质金属蛋白酶-1(matrix metalloproteinase-1, MMP-1)和环氧合酶-2的生成,恢复Ⅰ型胶原表达水平,以抑制胶原降解和皱纹生成,并且还可提高皮肤含水量(Kim et al., 2018)。人参皂苷Rd对体外培养成纤维细胞内的基质金属蛋白酶-1(MMP-1)和基质金属蛋白酶-3 (matrix metalloproteinase-3, MMP-3)有着明显的抑制作用,可以达到和芳维甲酸乙酯相同的治疗和预防皮肤光老化的作用(Deng et al., 2010)。人参皂苷Rg1提高细胞SOD活性,使MDA、MMP-1和MMP-3含量降低,且浓度越高,人参皂苷Rg1对UVB造成的皮肤成纤维细胞损伤保护效果越好(Liu et al., 2015)。此外,人参皂苷Rg1、Re、Rb1均可通过影响成纤维细胞的基因及蛋白质的表达,显著促成胶原合成,抑制胶原降解,改善胶原代谢(Li et al., 2011)。鲜人参加工成红参的中间产物精氨酸双糖苷AFG可体外清除DPPH自由基(1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH),抑制2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid(ABTS)自由基活性,且比红参具有更强的清除自由基能力(Li et al., 2014)。
人参不同部位的提取物由于含有人参皂苷、人参多糖等有效成分,也具有抗衰功效。人参花蕾中皂苷Rd含量高达 2.77%,其提取物可有效清除自由基,5.0%的人参花蕾提取液清除羟基自由基能力最强(Ma & Shao, 2008)。0.24 mg/mL浓度的人参花黄酮具有较强的体外抗氧化活性,可有效清除DPPH、羟基自由基、超氧阴离子3种自由基(Du et al., 2018)。人参花萼醇提物可抑制H2O2和UVB诱导生成的ROS,还能降低基质金属蛋白酶、丝裂原活化蛋白激酶、透明质酸酶的表达,提高细胞存活率(Lee et al., 2018)。用人参茎叶提取物处理UVA照射的人角质形成细胞可降低基质金属蛋白酶-2(MMP-2)和基质金属蛋白酶-9(MMP-9)的表达,抑制ROS生成和谷胱甘肽(glutathione,GHS)的减少(Kim et al., 2014)。人参果提取物可激活长寿基因FoxO3a,具有良好的抗致突变作用和抗衰作用(Kim et al., 2017)。用人参根醇提物预处理HS68细胞,增加细胞活性并抑制活性氧的产生,抑制UVB诱导基质金属蛋白酶MMP-1和MMP-13的生成,Western blot分析进一步显示人参可以明显抑制UVB造成的胶原降解和UVB诱导 nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-κB)、c-Jun、c-Fos的激活和丝裂原活化蛋白激酶(mitogen activited protein kinase,MAPK)的磷酸化,结果表明人参根提取物可通过干扰 MAPK/activator protein-1(AP-1)和NF-κB的信号传导,来抑制胶基质金属蛋白酶的合成(Hwang et al., 2012)。

2.Whitening effect of ginseng and ginsenosides

1) Whitening mechanism

人类皮肤的颜色是由表皮中的黑色素、类胡萝卜素和真皮中的氧合血红蛋白、血红蛋白、胆红素等色素的含量所决定(Yue & Zhu, 2003),其中以黑色素为主要影响因素。黑色素主要由黑素细胞(melanoncyte, MC)合成与分泌,酪氨酸酶被视为黑素合成过程中最重要的关键酶,抑制该酶活性直接影响黑素合成的速率与数量。另外研究表明,黑素的合成与分泌可受多种体内外因素影响,如:激素、炎症、环境等刺激因素(Liu-Smith & Meyskens, 2016; Swope & Abdel-Malek, 2016)。皮肤屏障受损,角质层变薄或经皮失水量增加,皮肤血液微循环不畅,氧自由基堆积和炎症反应均可诱发色素沉积(Zhou et al., 2017)。

2) Current status of research on whitening effect of ginseng cosmetics

皮肤美白机制十分复杂,影响因素较多,目前人参对皮肤美白机制的研究主要集中在黑素合成及其相关信号通路和炎症反应,以韩国对于人参的美白功效研究较为深入。研究发现人参二醇组皂苷、人参皂苷Rb1可抑制培养黑色素细胞一氧化氮合酶的表达(Cheng et al., 2006)。人参皂苷Rh4的糖苷元可能通过蛋白酶A通路来抑制B16黑素瘤细胞中黑色素的合成(Jeong et al., 2013)。人参花萼醇提物通过阻断激活蛋白1调节酶,如p38、细胞外信号调节激酶(extracellular signal-regulated kinases,ERKs)、环磷酸腺苷反应元件结合蛋白等,来抑制黑色素的合成和分泌(Lee et al., 2018)。红参提取物可减少紫外线照射后SP-1角质形成细胞中granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor(GM-CSF)的表达(Oh et al., 2013),从而阻断黑素细胞的增殖和分化。人参果提取物比人参根提取物更能减少黑色素积累和降低酪氨酸酶活性,减少脂褐素累积,可能与其活效成分丁香脂素有关(Kim et al., 2017)。
人参提取物和人参皂苷已在多个研究中被证实具有抗炎活性(Kee et al., 2017; Osada-Oka et al., 2018),而炎性细胞因子如白细胞介素1(interleukin-1,IL-1)和肿瘤坏死因子-α(tumor necrosis factor,TNF-α)参与调节黑素合成。因此除直接作用于黑素合成,人参也可通过其抗炎活性来间接调控黑素合成。人参皂苷可抑制不同诱导因子激活的信号蛋白激酶和转录因子核因子NF-κB,从而降低促炎细胞因子的产生及炎症介质(Lee & Lau, 2011)。红参提取物也可降低脂多糖(lipopolysaccharide,LPS)处理后的HaCaT角质形成细胞中的TNF-α和interleukin-8(IL-8)的产生(Hong & Lyu, 2011)。这些发现表明人参提取物和人参皂苷可能是通过抗炎活性来影响黑素生成。
另外一些研究发现,人参皂苷并非无条件抑制黑素细胞增殖和黑素合成,甚至可能促进黑素细胞增殖和黑素合成。通过melanocyte stimulating hormone(MSH)以剂量依赖的方式刺激B16细胞,人参皂苷Rb1可以通过抑制酪氨酸酶的活性从而达到抑制黑色素生成的效果(Wang et al., 2014)。但又有研究表明不同浓度Rb1对于体外蘑菇酪氨酸酶的抑制率明显低于熊果苷,说明人参皂苷Rb1对于体外蘑菇酪氨酸酶活性没有明显作用,且人参皂苷Rb1低浓度对B16黑色素细胞增殖有促进作用,高浓度对B16黑色素细胞增殖有抑制作用(Song et al., 2010)。不同的实验结果,推断可能与采用的试剂浓度有关。80-10 μg/mL的人参皂苷Rg1能抑制黑素细胞增殖,减少黑素合成,2.5 μg/mL剂量则促进黑素细胞增殖,但对黑素合成作用不明显(Zhao et al., 2011)。用人参皂苷Rb1代谢产物CK处理B16细胞,细胞内黑素合成增加,对酪氨酸酶活性没有抑制作用,反而刺激黑素生成,暗示CK不具备美白功效,而在细胞水平上具有光保护性(Kim et al., 2018)。美白机制本身较为复杂,相较于人参的抗衰功效,对人参美白功效的研究并不是很充分,在多方面的作用机制不是很明确,因此相关研究还需要更进一步深入。

Technology of ginseng cosmetics

人参的研究主要集中在中国和韩国,韩国公布的论文份额最高,占32%,其次是中国,占24%(Kang & Lee, 2015)。目前韩国厂商在人参化妆品专利上进行了全球布局,基本呈现垄断趋势,专利主要集中于设备工艺优化、生物转化及组方产品,以爱茉莉太平洋表现最为强劲。从2008年开始,爱茉莉太平洋人参专利年均申请量30项以上,目前共检索人参专利446项,有效率43%,主要涉及人参皂苷、人参、人参组合物及多糖,功效以抗衰为主,美白次之,与现如今的科研开展的方向和深入度一致。国内外不少学者将多种技术运用到人参成分的处理中,并取得了显著的进展和成果。宋肖洁(Song et al., 2016)等将航空育种技术运用到化妆品领域,用“太空酵母”将人参花籽的混合提取物转化为生物活性高的“太空人参酵母”,可明显促进人原代角质细胞的增殖能力、克隆形成能力及划痕修复能力。用超低温处理人参叶可减轻UVB皮肤屏障功能受损,抑制MMP-2、MMP-3的表达,具有光化学保护作用(Hong et al., 2016)。用酶处理人参叶提取物可抑制ROS生成、MMP-2和MMP-9表达,且效果优于未处理的人参叶(Kim et al., 2014)。
近年来人参生物转化方面的研究较多,其中人参微生物发酵技术是目前的研究热点,将人参等中药材做为营养基质,通过微生物的生理活动与生化反应过程对人参皂苷进行结构修饰,产生新的活性成分和新的功能,此类技术能将普通人参皂苷转化为稀有人参皂苷,提高人参总苷量,还可以增强相关活性。尤其是固体双向发酵,无须将微生物与发酵产物分离,二者共同发挥药物活性,克服了分离纯化困难、产率低的缺点(Cai et al., 2018),经过几十年的发展延伸至化妆品领域,或将为化妆品应用开拓新的前景(Zuo et al., 2017)。虞旦(Yu et al., 2018)等用黄酒酵母发酵人参粉后发现,体积分数为10.49%的人参发酵液可清除50%的DPPH自由基,19.62%的人参发酵液可清除50%的羟自由基;体积分数为0.01%的人参发酵液培养的成纤维细胞存活率甚至超过100%,可有效促进细胞增殖。杨慧萍(Yang & Li, 2017)等将人参皂苷Re、Rg1、Rb1进行双向固体发酵,普通人参皂苷Rb1可转化为稀有人参皂苷Rd,可在清除自由基、抗衰老、调节免疫、抗肿瘤等方面发挥独特药效。

The market situation of ginseng cosmetics

市面上现有的人参化妆品覆盖范围较为广泛和全面,包括洁面乳、爽肤水、 乳液、面霜、精华、眼霜、面膜、洗护发及沐浴等品类,用于滋润保湿、紧致抗衰、提亮美白、柔顺去屑、防脱生发等方面,男女护肤品和洗护用品均有涉及。所用人参添加成分以根、茎/叶、花、果提取物居多,少数产品可能会添加人参皂苷,韩国化妆品多以红参及生物转化后的人参提取物为主。人参提取物使用较多而单体功效成分运用较少,使得很多产品成分含量不明,功效不突出,不能很好的彰显人参的功效优势。大量廉价人参化妆品充斥在低端市场,破坏了人参产品应有的市场形象,有的宣称含人参成分的产品经检测后实际上并不含人参成分,一定程度上使得人参类化妆品失去了消费者群体的信任。因此,市场产品的功效宣传应该忠实的建立在科研成果的基础上,充分运用现有的关于人参皂苷和人参提取物功效研究成果,重新建立消费者信任感。另外,科研工作可以更多关注人参不同部位的其他活效成分的化妆品功效,丰富人参原料在化妆品领域的运用。

Conclusion

本文总结了近几年来国内外关于人参功效及技术方面的研究和市场运用情况,目前人参在抗衰和美白方面研究成果较多,美白的研究还正处于多方面的探索阶段,人参提取物和多种人参皂苷的抗衰的作用机制研究已较为成熟深入,可为化妆品生产企业提供产品功效依据,如何将人参原料更好的运用在化妆品配方设计中是目前行业需要认真思考的问题。人参在中国有着悠久的运用历史,留传下了很多珍贵的医学美容典籍。随着人口老龄化和日益增长的抗衰需求,作为中国传统文化的一部分,人参延年益寿和美容养颜的价值值得进一步深挖和凸显。本文认为进一步研究人参相关的配方技术,发挥中国人参的产地优势,不断地明晰功效成分和作用机理,充分发掘和利用中医配方精髓,将传统文化优势与现代科研技术相结合,发挥人参中医组方在化妆品中的作用,瞄准中高端市场,确立区别于韩国化妆品的品牌和产品优势,可为我国人参化妆品的发展开拓新的前景。

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the Beijing Technology and Business University Youth Scholars Fund : PXM2018_014213_000033.

References

Cai BX, Luo D, Lin XF. Effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on photodamage induced by ultraviolet B in primary keratinocyte. Chinese Journal of Aesthetic Medicine 17: 1315-1317. 2008.

Cai X, Yan P, Gao X, Chen Q, Guo C, Liu R, Liang H, Zhang M. Research progress of ginsenoside biotransformation. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 20: 52-60. 2018.

Cheng JY, Zhong GS, Han Y, Yu H. The effects of panaxadiol saponins and ginsenoside Rb1 on cultivation melanocytes in vitro. Lishizhen Medicine and Materia Medica Research 17: 1916-1917. 2006.

Deng M, Zhong GS, Lei QR. Experiment study of the effect of ginsenoside Rd on the cultured sunlight-induced ageing fibroblasts in human dermis. Journal of Diagnosis and Therapy on Dermato-Venereology 17: 403-406. 2010.

Du HX, Tao JQ, Wang X, Liu YX, Yu X. Response surface optimized extraction of flavonoids from ginseng flower and antioxidant activities. Science and Technology of Food Industry 39: 216-221. 2018.

Hong CE, Lyu SY. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of Korean red ginseng extract in human keratinocytes. Immune Network 11: 42-49. 2011.
crossref pmid pmc
Hwang YP, Choi JH, Kim HG, Choi JM, Hwang SK, Chung YC, Jeong HG. Cultivated ginseng suppresses ultraviolet B-induced collagenase activation via mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor κB/activator protein-1-dependent signaling in human dermal fibroblasts. Nutrition Research 32: 428-438. 2012.
crossref pmid
Hong YH, Lee HS, Jung EY, Han SH, Park Y, Suh HJ. Photoprotective effects of topical ginseng leaf extract using Ultraflo L against UVB-induced skin damage in hairless mice. Journal of Ginseng Research 41: 456-462. 2016.
crossref pmid pmc
Jin GH, Liu SZ, Liu Y, Li XK, Ma XY. Study on protective mechanism of PT, VitE and VitC from skin damage induced by ultraviolet radiation. Journal of Norman Bethune University of Medical Science 28: 21-23. 2002.

Jeong YM, Oh WK, Tran TL, Kim WK, Sung SH, Bae K, Lee S, Sung JH. Aglycone of Rh4 inhibits melanin synthesis in B16 melanoma cells: possible involvement of the protein kinase A pathway. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 77: 119-125. 2013.
crossref pmid
Kang SH, Lee EJ. Analysis of ginseng research trend for last decade. Integrative Medicine Research 4: 136. 2015.

Kee JY, Jeon YD, Kim DS, Han YH, Park J, Youn DH, Kim SJ, Ahn KS, Um JY, Hong SH. Korean red ginseng improves atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions by suppressing expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in vivo and in vitro. Journal of Ginseng Research 41: 134-143. 2017.
crossref pmid
Kim E, Kim D, Yoo S, Hong YH, Han SY, Jeong S, Jeong D, Kim JH, Cho JY, Park J. The skin protective effects of compound K, a metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1 from Panax ginseng. Journal of Ginseng Research 42: 218-224. 2018.
crossref pmid
Kim J, Cho SY, Kim SH, Cho D, Kim S, Park CW, Shimizu T, Cho JY, Seo DB, Shin SS. Effects of Korean ginseng berry on skin antipigmentation and antiaging via FoxO3a activation. Journal of Ginseng Research 41: 277-283. 2017.
crossref pmid
Kim MR, Lee HS, Choi HS, Kim SY, Park Y, Suh HJ. Protective effects of ginseng leaf extract using enzymatic extraction against oxidative damage of UVA-irradiated human keratinocytes. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 173: 933-945. 2014.
crossref pmid
Lee DC, Lau AS. Effects of Panax ginseng on tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated inflammation: a mini-review. Molecules 16: 2802-2816. 2011.
crossref pmid pmc
Lee JO, Kim E, Kim JH, Hong YH, Kim HG, Jeong D, Kim J, Kim SH, Park C, Seo DB, et al. Antimelanogenesis and skin-protective activities of Panax ginseng calyx ethanol extract. Journal of Ginseng Research 42: 389-399. 2018.
crossref pmid pmc
Li H, Zhen Y, Fan N, Liu S, Zhang J. Activity sudies of ginseng cosmetics of AFG series in vitro. Ginseng Research 2: 12-15. 2014.

Li JF, Zhou DX, Hong XY, Cai M. Effects of ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1 and Re on human skin collagen metabolism. Journal of Tongji University (Medical Science) 32: 28-32. 2011.

Li Q, Wu ZM. The principle and application of anti-aging cosmetics. Chinese Journal of Aesthetic Medicine 26: 135-138. 2017.

Lin XY, Sun X. Research progress on anti-aging mechanism of rhodiola. Chinese Journal of Gerontology 38: 3299-3300. 2018.

Liu Y, Xu HX, Hui Y, Zhang XF, Xiao XM, Wang BX. Protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against UVB-induced photodamage on skin fibroblasts. China Journal of Leprosy & Skin Diseases 31: 136-139. 2015.

Liu-Smith F, Meyskens FL. Molecular mechanisms of flavonoids in melanin synthesis and the potential for the prevention and treatment of melanoma. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 60: 1264-1274. 2016.
crossref pmid
Ma Y, Shao LX. Study on hydroxy free radical scavenging effect of ginseng flowers extract. Journal of Food Science 29: 101-104. 2008.

Oh CT, Park JI, Jung YR, Joo YA, Shin DH, Cho HJ, Ahn SM, Lim YH, Park CK, Hwang JS. Inhibitory effect of Korean red ginseng on melanocyte proliferation and its possible implication in GM-CSF mediated signaling. Journal of Ginseng Research 37: 389-400. 2013.
crossref pmid pmc
Osada-Oka M, Hirai S, Izumi Y, Misumi K, Samukawa K, Tomita S, Miura K, Minamiyama Y, Iwao H. Red ginseng extracts attenuate skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis through p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase activation. Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 136: 9-15. 2018.
crossref pmid
Reiter RJ, Paredes SD, Korkmaz A, Manchester LC, Tan DX. Melatonin in relation to the "strong" and "weak" versions of the free radical theory of aging. Advances in Medical Sciences 53: 119-129. 2008.
crossref pmid pdf
Song WG, Sun LW, Li Y. A preliminary research on the whitening effect of ginsenoside Rb1. Journal of Jilin Agricultural University 32: 498-499, 504. 2010.

Song XJ, Zhou CX, Wu Y. Study on potential applications of “space ginseng yeast” in cosmetics. China Surfactant Detergent & Cosmetics 46: 703-708. 2016.

Swope VB, Abdel-Malek ZA. Significance of the melanocortin 1 and endothelin B receptors in melanocyte homeostasis and prevention of sun-induced genotoxicity. Frontiers in Genetics 7: 146. 2016.
crossref pmid pmc
Wang L, Lu AP, Yu ZL, Wong RN, Bian ZX, Kwok HH, Yue PY, Zhou LM, Chen H, Xu M, et al. The melanogenesisinhibitory effect and the percutaneous formulation of ginsenoside Rb1. AAPS PharmScitech 15: 1252-1262. 2014.
crossref pmid pmc
Xia X, Wu Y, Yeon ZH. A review on the research progress of efficacy mechanism and application technology of anti-aging cosmetic ingredients. Flavour Fragrance Cosmetics 3: 80-82. 2018.

Yang HP, Li X. Determine changes of ginsenoside components during bidirectional solid fermentation course by HPLC-ELSD. Chinese Journal of Rational Drug Use 14: 70-74. 2017.

Yu D, Wang CT, Zhao D, Zhang JC, Su N, Li M. Analysis of active substances in ginseng fermentation broth and study on its efficacy. China Surfactant Detergent & Cosmetics 48: 94-98. 2018.

Yue XZ, Zhu WY. The color of the skin and its measurement. Journal of Clinical Dermatology 32: 554-556. 2003.

Zhao B, Xu T. The effects of ginsenoside Rg1 to melanine synthesis on human melanocyte cell line MV3. Ginseng Research 2: 9-11. 2011.

Zhou T, Li Y, He L. The progress on mechanisms of skin whitening. Journal of Dermatology and Venereology 39: 168-172. 2017.

Zuo JH, Xue Y, Du YJ, Li L, Dong YM. Application of bidirectional fermentation technology of traditional Chinese medicine in cosmetics. China Surfactant Detergent & Cosmetics 47: 583-587, 597. 2017.

Editorial Office
No.306, 244 Beotkkot-ro, Geumcheon-gu, Seoul 08513, Republic of Korea
TEL: +82-70-7707-4346   FAX: +82-502-770-2278   E-mail: ajbc.edit@gmail.com
About |  Browse Articles |  Current Issue |  For Authors and Reviewers
Copyright © Korea Institute of Dermatological Sciences. All rights reserved.